RFID General

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RFID System Frequency Ranges

There are 6 major frequency ranges that RFID systems operate at. As a rule of thumb, low-frequency systems are distinguished by short reading ranges, slow read speeds, and lower cost. Higher-frequency RFID systems are used where longer read ranges and fast reading speeds are required, such as for vehicle tracking and automated toll collection. Microwave requires the use of active RFID tags (ARAT).

Frequency Range Tag cost Applications
Low-frequency
125 - 148 KHz
up to 3 inches $+ Pet and ranch animal identification;
car keylocks; factory data collection
High-frequency
13.56 MHz
up to 3 feet $0.50 - $5 library book identification;
clothing identification; smart cards
Ultra-high frequency
433 MHz
up to 300 feet $5 Defense applications w/ active tags
Ultra-high frequency
865 - 928 MHz
up to 36 feet $0.15 Supply chain tracking:
Boxes, pallets, containers, trailers
Microwave:
2.45 - 5.8 GHz
up to 6 feet $25 (active) Highway toll collection;
vehicle fleet identification
Microwave:
3.1 - 10 GHz
up to 600 feet $5